Fashion is a huge industry. There can be no doubt about that. With all the different stores and the sheer amount of competition out there, many companies have turned to direct selling models instead. This style allows them to rely on distributors, who promote the clothing on an individual basis.
The idea does have some advantages. Clothing network marketing companies provide customers with a way to purchase clothing in the comfort of their own homes. The companies often produce clothing that is more unusual as well, including funky styles and patterns.
But, the idea is odd too. Customers are accustomed to being able to try on clothing before they buy it. This is how they decide what they want and which items look good. This is possible with some clothing network marketing companies but not all of them. Even when distributors do have items that people can try on, they typically won’t have every style of size.
Also, it can be a high pressure situation to have close friends or family present you with a load of clothes they hope you buy. Rejecting items as ugly or not worth your money is easy inside a store where you're just another anonymous shopper. Rejecting items from a friend's business may not be as easy and no one wants to end up with a closet full of guilt-tripped clothing.
These issues doesn’t prevent you from selling clothing through direct marketing. Each company out there has some success stories, where distributors have done well for themselves. The real message is to simply be realistic. Don’t rely on the hype from the company or from distributors about how much you could earn.
Also, consider working with these types companies carefully before jumping in. Many will involve considerable up front investment. You’ll often need to buy the clothes first and then resell them. The idea is profitable but only if you can make consistent sales. If you can’t, you risk ending up with a stockpile of clothing that is difficult to move.
The list below highlights the key companies in the field, along with their main characteristics. I’m not affiliated with any of them. Instead, my goal is to provide an objective comparison and a jumping off point for anyone looking to build a business they might want to take online!
Agnes & Dora
- Focus: Clothing for women and children
- Minimum Cost: $3,500 (for inventory)
Product Overview: Agnes & Dora offers a selection of clothing. Most of their pieces are unusual but not exceptionally so. For example, many of their shirts are in plain colors like black, blue and red but the cut is slightly different than what you find in a regular store. This makes the clothing appealing to a wide audience and still gives a sense of uniqueness.
The main exception is leggings. Many of these are in bright and funky colors. There are some more subtle ones too but not as many. Demand for this type of product is pretty high right now, so the style makes sense.
There aren’t many objective reviews about the clothes, so it is a little hard to know what to expect. Most of the ones I found were positive. But, some people say that the quality doesn’t match the price. Many of the items are $50 or more, and they often look simple. Lower quality might be fine if you were paying $20 for a piece of clothing. But, people tend to expect more with a higher price tag.
Commission Quick View: Like most clothing companies, Agnes & Dora is inventory based. You’re meant to buy a large collection of clothing and then resell them to customers. Your profit is the difference between what you pay and how much you sell the items for.
What this looks like in practice isn’t clear – Agnes & Dora doesn’t offer details. Distributors don’t talk about the process much either. You would be able to get feedback from potential customers about the items that they want before you order. Even so, there is a degree of guesswork. You could easily end up with clothing that you simply couldn’t sell.
Agnes & Dora does provide more flexibility than most. You can sell the products on Facebook or your own website, along with in-person sales. You could also rely on local markets and even places like Craigslist.
There are no details about the team aspect, except for the fact that there is one. It’s not clear how much you can earn from your team or how bonuses are calculated.
But, one thing is obvious. With a start-up cost of around $3,500 and the need to purchase inventory regularly – getting people to join would be very difficult indeed.
Final Thoughts: The clothing from Agnes & Dora could sell and it clearly does. But, the purchasing model is challenging and details are scarce.
- Focus: High-quality and fashionable clothing
- Minimum Cost: $2,750 (for inventory)
Product Overview: Most of the pieces from CAbi are conventional. There is a strong emphasis on style and quality. Many of the items are designed for professional environments as well.
This emphasis also means that the items aren’t cheap. Most are well over $50 and many cost $100 or more. For example, a very basic white tank top costs $59, while an embroidered blouse costs $119. The selection is also limited. There are typically fewer than 100 items available at any given time, although these will change with the seasons.
Reviews suggest that the products are designed to improve people’s appearance. This includes careful cuts and styles that can make you look taller and/or thinner.
The biggest advantage is the idea of stylists. Consultants for the companies are doing more than just selling clothes. They help people figure out what looks good on them and how they can look better. If you’re good at this, making sales should be easy (as long as your audience can afford the products).
Commission Quick View: CAbi is designed for serious sellers only. You need to sell at least $2,500 of product in your first season and $3,500 in every season after that. If you don’t hit those goals, you’re not able to sell in subsequent seasons. Members aren’t allowed to sell on external sites either, which includes sites like Amazon. Of course, many still do.
CAbi also focuses on making sure that people know what they’re getting involved in and are prepared for the costs. This results in fewer distributors and less competition. It helps feed the exclusive image as well.
As for commissions, you earn from 20% to 33% from your sales, depending on your progress and your team. You can also earn percentages of the sales that your team members make (for up to four different levels).
The compensation plan is very simple compared to other companies. There doesn’t seem to be any ranks to worry about. Instead, you and your team just need to hit sales targets.
Final Thoughts: The ongoing requirements for CAbi are intense – but it’s nice that the company is up-front about them. The style probably isn’t realistic for most people. But, if you had enough capital and a large enough audience, it could possibly work.
- Focus: Fun and casual clothing, mostly for women
- Minimum Cost: From $5,000 to $6,000 (for starting inventory)
Product Overview: LuLaRoe focuses on casual clothing, including styles that you might call funky. They’re most famous for their leggings. These come in many different patterns and were incredibly popular.
While many people love the styles, reviews about quality are mixed. Some reviews suggest that the quality is great and well worth the price. Others find the exact opposite. LuLaRoe has made headlines for this very reason, as their leggings were regularly ripping after very little wear. The company is taking steps to remedy the problem but it’s still concerning.
Commission Quick View: LuLaRoe follows a buy then resell model. Members can earn between 35% and 50% commission on sales, depending on the prices that they set. Team commissions are earned through a unilevel model and include the ability to earn 5% on the orders of people that are personally sponsored.
Members need to order 175 items per month to earn from their team. This could easily add up to more than $1,000 each month. That’s fine if you’re able to sell the clothing at a profit. If not, the process gets expensive fast. The main avenue for sales is parties, although members often rely on Facebook groups as well.
LuLaRoe has experienced considerable controversy, including a recent class-action lawsuit. While some people earn income through it, others have ended up in debt. One serious problem is a change to buyback policy. This reduces how much you can get back from LuLaRoe for unsold stock. The change dramatically increases the risk for distributors.
Final Thoughts: I would only ever suggest this company if you love the clothes. Even then, there is far too much risk and controversy to make it a good choice. LuLaRoe has simply made headlines for all the wrong reasons.
Matilda Jane Clothing
- Focus: Clothes for girls and women
- Minimum Cost: Not stated but is likely to be upwards of $1,000
Product Overview: Matilda Jane Clothing offers around 25 or so clothing items for women but their main focus is on girls. They have collections for babies, children and tweens. These include various different styles. Some items are relatively basic and conventional. Others make use of bright colors and interesting shapes.
The combination of styles should make it easy for people to find items that they’re interested in. In fact, many reviewers are passionate about the products, especially with how cute and unusual many of them are. The selection also changes regularly. Matilda Jane Clothing is great at creating hype for new styles too, which is always good for sales.
Prices vary depending on the product. But, it’s not unusual to find items from $30 to $50, with some of the dresses being higher than this.
If you’re interested in Matilda Jane Clothing, I recommend finding out what your potential audience thinks of the clothes. The items are popular but not everyone likes them. Some people feel that they’re simply too unusual or that they’re not practical. The prices may also be too high for some people.
Commission Quick View: Matilda Jane Clothing allows you to earn 20% on all sales. You also make 5% on any sales you promote through the company’s Good Luck Trunk website and any Platinum orders.
The team-based aspect is fairly basic. You can earn from multiple levels in your downline, based on your current rank. This starts at 4% from your first level referrals (the people you recruit directly) and increases from there. The rank requirements increase quickly and you need to hit sales goals, along with ensuring that some team members get promoted.
One other aspect is performance. You need to make $1,500 of personal sales every single month to stay active. This is a very high requirement, especially as it is monthly.
Most clothing companies operate through an inventory model but Matilda Jane Clothing seems to be different. Distributors order samples, which are used in the shows. Customers then order from the company. The samples can then be sold at a discount at the end of the season (and not beforehand). This can decrease the risk, although you may have to sell the samples for less than you paid for then,
The main way to make sales is with physical Trunk Shows. These provide a chance to show off the products and to get adults (and kids) excited about the items.
Matilda Jane Clothing does allow people to use virtual trunk shows as well but these are discouraged. Distributors aren’t allowed to use images from the company when doing so, which includes any pictures of the clothing. This aspect may make sales more difficult, especially if some of your audience isn’t local.
For that matter, Matilda Jane Clothing doesn’t allow people to promote the products or the business online. So, you can’t write reviews to promote your business or to get more interest. Some people still do, of course. But, if you get caught, you may lose the ability to make money.
Final Thoughts: The items from Matilda Jane Clothing seem decent and it’s great that you don’t need to purchase first. But, the inability to promote online feels very archaic and would dramatically decrease your income potential.
- Focus: Casual clothes, including active wear
- Minimum Cost: $99 (a joining fee)
Product Overview: Clothing from Peach tends to be much more functional than other companies. This includes items that are designed for the gym, along with ones that are simply meant to be comfortable. There are some formal pieces in the mix as well but not as many of them.
The overall idea is clothing that feels incredibly comfortable but still looks good. Most of their items can be used with many different outfits, which makes them versatile.
The catch is that they’re pretty expensive. For example, the sports bras cost $49 each, while leggings are $79, as are jogging pants. The items might be worth it if you wore them regularly. But, the prices are high enough to make customers hesitate.
Peach is also well-known for offering a bra fitting service. This was something I highlighted when I reviewed the company. That service is appealing, as many people are nervous about getting bras fitted in a local store. But, the site for Peach currently just has bralettes and yoga bras, so the service may no longer be available.
Commission Quick View: Distributors make 25% from all sales, which is similar to other companies. However, Peach is catalog based. This means you don’t have to order an inventory of the products and then try to resell the items. The difference makes Peach much less risky and getting involved is cheaper.
Peach is also much more transparent about their commission plan. Along with basic sales, there is a Power Seller bonus. This allows you to earn 5%, 7% or 10% extra in commissions if you can hit certain sales targets. These would be tough to meet but the option is always nice.
Peach uses a unilevel design for earning from your team. This means people fall into levels based on who recruited who. Progressing through ranks gives you the chance to earn at increasing depth. In the beginning, you just earn 3% from the people you directly recruit and it increases from there.
Interestingly, the plan only goes to three levels, which limits the income potential. But, you can get up to 10% income from the people you directly recruit, 5% from the next level down and 2% from the final level. That’s pretty impressive. It also means you’re focusing on building a high-quality team, rather than a large one.
Final Thoughts: I’m not a big fan of the products from Peach, simply because of the pricing. But, the compensation plan is better than most and I’m impressed at how simple they’ve kept it.
- Focus: Shapewear of various styles
- Minimum Cost: $249 (starter kit that includes products, website access and business supplies)
Product Overview: Ruby Ribbon offers some conventional clothing but their focus is on shapewear. The products are designed to make you look good in your clothing, regardless of your physical shape (within reason). Their regular clothing often has shapewear functions as well. Most pieces are also designed to pair easily with many different outfits.
One useful aspect is the sizing. Many of the products range from XS to XXXL, without any change in price. Camis and demiettes also have a range of sizes, with some going from 32 to 46. The sizing isn’t as variable as a physical store. But, it is more than most direct marketing companies will provide.
Most of the products are above $50 and under $100. I don’t know enough about shapewear to say whether those are reasonable prices or not. But, at least the products are unusual. Other companies in this list tend to avoid shapewear.
The reviews I have seen are generally positive. For example, one site talked about how the Classic Cami actually does what it is meant to (which is more impressive than you might expect). Comments that were left on that review suggest that other people have had positive experiences as well.
Commission Quick View: Ruby Ribbon provides between 20% and 40% in commission for sales, based on rank. As always, progressing through the ranks involves building a larger team and recruiting others. Sales appear to be based on a catalog, so there’s no need to purchase and then resell.
But, Ruby Ribbon starts members off easily. The first rank gives you 20% commission and the second gives you 25%. They both allow you to earn 3% from the sales of anyone you recruit. Progressing from the first to second just involves getting more than $750 in total sales. The next rank up is the first one that requires an active recruit.
The first two ranks also have minimal requirements. You just need to sell $300 of products every three months. That’s not too bad, especially when most products are at least $50.
Things start to get complex after this. From the third rank on, you need to be making $300 in sales every month. There is a greater focus on recruitment as well. The requirements get more complex the further along you go. This includes the need to meet team sales goals and personal ones.
Whether this is achievable depends on your audience and sales skills. But, the pattern is no different than other companies.
Final Thoughts: If you could make regular sales, Ruby Ribbon is a decent enough company. It’s also relatively easy to get started with and has few initial costs.
W by Worth
- Focus: Fashion with a strong professional focus
- Minimum Cost: Unclear
Product Overview: The items from W by Worth tend look elegant. Some of them are pieces that you might see businesswomen wear. Others are less traditional but still have a professional feel. Even the more casual items are high-quality. They’re certainly more refined than the items from companies like Matilda Jane Clothing and LuLaRoe.
This pattern is reflected in the prices. For example, a woven poncho costs $278, as does a pair of gingham pants. There are some cheaper examples but they’re still unusually high. For example, the company’s Firm Rib Jersey Tank costs $98 and they have a rope belt that costs $198.
W by Worth isn’t the most expensive company on this list but it does get pretty close. Some people could afford the clothes, especially if they viewed them as investments to their wardrobe. But, many others wouldn’t be able to.
Reviews aren’t that great either. Some reviewers suggest that clothing needs to be modified after purchasing. Others say that the quality isn’t as good as it should be. None of the products seem horrible. But, if customers are paying more than $200 for a piece of clothing, they expect something exceptional.
Commission Quick View: Many companies are tight-lipped about their compensation plan – but W by Worth takes this to an entirely new level. There are no details at all about how much you can earn or the systems behind the opportunity.
The main piece of information is that you host trunk shows. This probably means you need to buy and resell the clothing. But, even that isn’t obvious.
Final Thoughts: With no compensation details at all, there’s no way to know whether W by Worth is a viable source of income. Besides, the clothes would be too expensive for many potential customers.
- Focus: High-quality clothing and stylist services
- Minimum Cost: Unclear
Product Overview: The clothing from Etcetera comes in a variety of different styles. Many of the pieces are professional, similar to what you might wear to work. Other pieces are more casual. But, regardless of the style, all of the pieces tend to be relatively conventional. They don’t use bright colors or unusual shapes in the way that LuLaRoe and Matilda Jane Clothing do.
The overall idea is similar to W by Worth and the pricing is too. Pieces from Etcetera regularly cost $200 or more. Exact prices depend on the item but they’re never cheap.
Etcetera’s main sales pitch is their stylist services. They claim that their stylists (i.e. the consultants) provide people with guidance and a unique shopping experience. Of course, the same applies to all of the companies on this list.
Honestly, there isn’t much that sets Etcetera apart. Their clothing does look nice but none of it is unusual. The higher prices should mean more income per sale. But, only if you can make those sales initially. There are also no details about the quality of the items and reviews from customers are almost non-existent.
Commission Quick View: Etcetera offers very little information about their compensation plan. One review online suggests that consultants purchase various sizes of the current line, which customers can then try on. When customers find pieces they like, they can then order online. Alternatively, customers can order online directly and return any items that they don’t like.
With this style, you’d be purchasing inventory and then probably reselling it at a discount toward the end of the season. You’d be purchasing at distributor prices but the investment would be considerable.
That’s all there is for information. Etcetera provides no information about commission rates or ongoing requirements. Consultants are also tight-lipped about what’s involved.
Lack of details is always a serious problem if you want to make money. There are also few reviews on the products and none on the opportunity. This means you’d be going in blind.
Final Thoughts: Etcetera doesn’t seem worth it. Even if you do like the clothing, there is nothing that makes this company stand out above the rest.
- Focus: Clothing for men
- Minimum Cost: $299 (includes business tools, color swatches, training and a website)
Product Overview: Unlike most of the other companies, J. Hilburn focuses on clothing for men. They offer various styles, including some casual wear, along with business suits and other formal attire. The emphasis seems to be on quality, so you won’t find unusual shapes or colors here.
The prices are on the expensive side. For example, their Color Block Polos cost $125 (which is pricey for a glorified t-shirt). Pants often go for $250 or up, while suits can be more than $700.
But, that may be an unfair comparison. The prices and clothing style are similar to an upmarket clothing boutique. While they seem exceptionally high to me personally, they would probably be about right for the target audience.
The personalized service is a key selling point too. J. Hilburn distributors take measurements and allow people to choose the fabric that they want. Pieces are then made specifically for customers. Further changes are possible as well if the fit isn’t quite right. Quality appears to be good overall, although some reviews mention that there are some issues, especially when compared to other similarly priced items.
Customers could probably get better clothing with more customization from the right store. But, many people wouldn’t know where to start. J. Hilburn is an interesting idea in that regard and it is competitive. If nothing else, men aren’t normally targeted by direct marketing companies. This should mean lower competition. Just make sure your audience wants this type of clothing and can afford it.
Commission Quick View: First of all, J. Hilburn doesn’t require inventory. Consultants purchase fabric swatches, catalogs and related materials but there is no need to buy the clothing. The sales are made through a replicated website (which costs $5/month, with the first three months free) or through catalogs.
The commission rate is mostly based on monthly sales, ranging from 10% to 30% commission. You need to sell at least $400 of clothing in a month to get 12% commission, $700 to get 15% and $1,250 to get 15%. To get 30% commission, you need upwards of $5,000 in sales per month.
The starting commissions are incredibly low for this industry. But, you don’t have to buy and resell products, and the pieces are expensive. This means lower overheads and significant income per sale, even with the lower commission rates.
There is also the typical recruiting processes. J. Hilburn uses a unilevel plan based on ranks. Your ability to earn from your team increases as you go through the ranks. The pattern is the same as other companies, so I’m not going to go into details.
But, there are some interesting quirks. First, there are significant volume requirements to hit the higher ranks. Many of these consider total career sales, rather than monthly sales. Also, starting is fairly easy. You can earn 4% from people you directly recruit at the second rank. Getting there only requires meeting sales targets.
Consultants need to sell at least $1,000 in products every three months or $4,000 every year to remain active. Those numbers seem high but they’re not too bad. After all, the requirements aren’t monthly and the clothing is expensive, so it shouldn’t take many sales to meet the goals. If those targets seem out of reach, then being a clothing direct marketer probably isn’t the field for you.
Final Thoughts: The biggest issue with J. Hilburn would be the low commission rate. Everything else is fairly typical for the industry and there would at least be demand for the clothing. But, be very careful about your audience. The products on offer would be perfect for some people, while others wouldn’t be interested at all.
La Senorita Jolie
- Focus: Casual clothing
- Minimum Cost: $189 (for a starter kit)
Product Overview: La Senorita Jolie takes a slightly different approach, focusing on jewelry and accessories, along with their clothing range.
The products vary in style and in price. But, they tend to be more casual and less expensive than many of the other companies. For example, their Hello Gorgeous Tee costs $34, while their Gertrude dress costs $54.45. The prices should help make the products competitive, while the styles are different enough that they would be interesting.
While the items look decent enough, there are hardly any reviews about them. As always, you should try some for yourself before you get involved. This is the best way to get a sense of the quality and how the clothing feels.
Commission Quick View: Consultants earn between 25% (for clothing) and 35% (for jewelry) commission from sales, along with up to 12% in bonuses from their team. La Senorita Jolie is inventory-based, so consultants need to purchase the products first and then sell them on. The commissions are based on the difference between the wholesale and retail price of items.
The main method of selling is through Pop-Up shows. Most of the companies on this list use a similar style. La Senorita Jolie does provide members with a replicated website as well. Consultants can earn commissions for sales through these sites, although the commission rate isn’t specified.
Consultants need to sell at least $200 of clothing every quarter to stay active. There are additional requirements for higher ranks in the company. There is also a 70/30 rule, which means that at least 70% of wholesale sales need to be to customers, rather than other distributors.
There is also a team-based aspect and La Senorita Jolie requires consultants to actively support members of their team. But, there are few details about the income or bonuses associated with the process.
Final Thoughts: The inclusion of jewelry is an interesting touch and the products are fairly reasonable for the field. Without further compensation details, it isn’t clear whether La Senorita Jolie is better than or worse than other companies in the field.
- Focus: Clothing in a wide range of sizes and styles
- Minimum Cost: Unclear
Product Overview: The first thing to mention about Doncaster is their selection. The company has a larger product range than most other options. For example, there were 46 items in their knitwear category at the time of this review and similar patterns for other categories. There is also decent variation in the products and their styles.
Doncaster also offers three different sizing groups: Missy, Petite and Women’s. Sizes range from 0 to 24, although the specific options will depend on the product. The amount of selection should make it easier to promote to a wide audience.
But, once again, the pricing is on the expensive side. Pants and shirts are regularly over $200. Specific styles are pricier still. For example, cashmere blend sweaters cost more than $400 each. The clothes are probably high-quality, but that’s still a lot to pay for a single item.
The quality isn’t certain either. Reviews about Doncaster clothing are scare, so it’s not clear whether people are pleased with the pieces or not.
Commission Quick View: Doncaster is another company that offers almost no information about their opportunity. There is certainly a network marketing component, especially as the company focuses on ‘Women Empowering Women’. But, there are no details about commission rates or team building.
It’s not even clear whether you need to buy product yourself. Videos on the site do show consultants with stock behind them, which suggests some purchasing requirements. However, it’s not clear whether these are samples or products that get resold.
And, on a side note, the ‘Women Empowering Women’ idea is misleading. Some people find success with MLMs but many more don’t. There are countless reports about MLMs sending people into debt. The risk is especially high with clothing companies as most require significant investment. Success is still possible – but you need to be realistic about the odds before you get started.
Final Thoughts: I’m concerned about the lack of details and the price of the clothing doesn’t help either. The wide range of products and sizes is the one advantage that Doncaster has, but it’s not clear whether this is enough.
Ava Rose Designs
- Focus: Casual and relatively inexpensive clothing
- Minimum Cost: $139 (for a mini kit that contains some products, along with a contract and related items)
Product Overview: Ava Designs is another relatively casual brand. They have some more formal items as well but not very many. I also noticed that many of their items have little shape and tend to hang loosely. This may make them unappealing to some people.
There is also a Plus Size section but this only has a few items. In fact, the overall selection is limited., with relatively few products in each category.
The prices vary more with this brand than with most others. For example, I saw some items that were around $20 and others closer to $70. A few were over $100. There is a sales section too, which is pretty neat. The products tend to be much cheaper.
Ava Rose Designs considers itself to be seasonless. As such, they don’t release a new product range each season. Products are simply released whenever. This should help to make sales more consistent, as there are often new products to buy. However, it does mean no pre-season hype.
Finally, Ava Rose Designs isn’t just limited to clothing. There is a small selection of Home and Gift products as well, along with some accessories.
Commission Quick View: Base commission for sales is 20%. This can increase to 25% if you refer 6+ members and 30% if you refer 15+. Members need to sell at least $300 worth of product each year to remain active in the company.
Ava Rose Designs doesn’t specifically state whether you’re buying products and then reselling or using another method. Even so, the site mentions having to input orders manually. This implies that the company isn’t operating a resell model.
There is a website component as well but this is a little unusual. Ava Rose Designs charges a one-off fee of $129.99, which allows people to become Affiliate Members. These members can then make sales on their website and earn the same level of commission. So, you can only have a website if you’re prepared to pay a hefty fee.
The site offers few details about earning from a team, although there is a recruitment component. The process is likely to be similar to other companies, with a rank-based system and various requirements.
Final Thoughts: Once again, the lack of details is a major limitation. Having to pay a significant fee just for the ability to sell online is frustrating too – although this does mean you’re avoiding a monthly fee.
If you are going to try out network marketing, I would suggest a different industry. Clothing companies come with too much risk and many potential customers won’t want to purchase in this way. One alternative is to sell jewelry. Companies in this field typically require much less investment and sales are easier to make. The same is true for cosmetics.
But, if you’re passionate about clothing, look for companies that are transparent about their processes and don’t require you to purchase and then resell products. This lowers the risk considerably and means you won’t get stuck with clothing that you just cannot sell.
With that in mind, Ruby Ribbon is the best company in this list. Their products are a little different than other companies and they’re reasonably priced. Ruby Ribbon is also upfront about their compensation plan and doesn’t require you to meet high targets right from the beginning. They also seem to be catalog based, which helps minimize risk.
And, of course, there are various affiliate programs in the clothing industry. This angle may be particularly important for men's clothing – as there are some affiliate men's clothing companies, while most network marketing companies target females.